Zephaniah, Book of
I. THE AUTHOR
2. Political Situation
3. Moral and Religious Conditions
1. The Day of Yahweh
3. Messianic Prophecy
I. The Author.
The name "Zephaniah" (tsephanyah; Sophonias), which is borne by three other men mentioned in the Old Testament, means "Yah hides," or "Yah has hidden" or "treasured." "It suggests," says G. A. Smith, "the prophet's birth in the killing time of Manasseh" (2Ki 21:16).
The ancestry of the prophet is carried back four generations (Zep 1:1), which is unusual in the Old Testament (compare Isa 1:1; Ho 1:1); hence, it is thought, not without reason (Eiselen, Minor Prophets, 505), that the last-mentioned ancestor, Hezekiah, must have been a prominent man--indeed, no other than King Hezekiah of Judah, the contemporary of Isaiah and Micah. If Zephaniah was of royal blood, his condemnation of the royal princes (1:8) becomes of great interest. In a similar manner did Isaiah, who in all probability was of royal blood, condemn without hesitation the shortcomings and vices of the rulers and the court. An ancient tradition declares that Zephaniah was of the tribe of Simeon, which would make it impossible for him to be of royal blood; but the origin and value of this tradition are uncertain.
Zephaniah lived in Judah; that he lived in Jerusalem is made probable by the statement in 1:4, "I will cut off .... from this place," as well as by his intimate knowledge of the topography of the city (1:10,11).
For how long he continued his prophetic activity we do not know, but it is not improbable that, as in the case of Amos, his public activity was short, and that, after delivering his message of judgment in connection with a great political crisis, he retired to private life, though his interest in reforms may have continued (2Ki 23:2).
The title (Zep 1:1) places the prophetic activity of Zephaniah somewhere within the reign of Josiah, that is, between 639 and 608 BC. Most scholars accept this statement as historically correct. The most important exception is E. Koenig (Einl, 252 ff), who places it in the decade following the death of Josiah. Koenig's arguments are altogether inconclusive, while all the internal evidence points toward the reign of Josiah as the period of Zephaniah's activity. Can the ministry of the prophet be more definitely located within the 31 years of Josiah? The latter's reign falls naturally into two parts, separated by the great reform of 621. Does the work of Zephaniah belong to the earlier or the later period?
The more important arguments in favor of the later period are: (a) De 28:29-30 is quoted in Zep 1:13,15,17, in a manner which shows that the former book was well known, but according to the modern view, the Deuteronomic Code was not known until 621, because it was lost (2Ki 22:8). (b) The "remnant of Baal" (Zep 1:4) points to a period when much of the Baal-worship had been removed, which means subsequent to 621. (c) The condemnation of the "king's sons" (Zep 1:8) presupposes that at the time of the utterance they had reached the age of moral responsibility; this again points to the later period. These arguments are inconclusive: (a) The resemblances between Deuteronomy and Zephaniah are of such a general character that dependence of either passage on the other is improbable. (b) The expression in Zep 1:4 bears an interpretation which made its use quite appropriate before 621 (Eiselen, Minor Prophets, 508). (c) "King's sons" may be equivalent to "royal princes," referring not to Josiah's children at all. The last two objections lose all force if the Septuagint readings are accepted (Zep 1:4, "names of Baal"; Zep 1:8, "house of the king").
On the other hand, there are several considerations pointing to the earlier date: (a) The youth of the king would make it easy for the royal princes to go to the excesses condemned in Zep 1:8-9. (b) The idolatrous practices condemned by Zephaniah (Zep 1:3-5) are precisely those abolished in 621. (c) The temper described in Zep 1:12 is explicable before 621 and after the death of Josiah in 608, but not between 621 and 608, when religious enthusiasm was widespread. (d) Only the earlier part of Josiah's reign furnishes a suitable occasion for the prophecy. Evidently at the time of its delivery an enemy was threatening the borders of Judah and of the surrounding nations. But the only foes of Judah during the latter part of the 7th century meeting all the conditions are the Scythians, who swept over Western Asia about 625 BC. At the time the prophecy was delivered their advance against Egypt seems to have been still in the future, but imminent (Zep 1:14); hence, the prophet's activity may be placed between 630 and 625, perhaps in 626. If this date is correct, Zephaniah and Jeremiah began their ministries in the same year.
2. Political Situation:
Little can be said about the political conditions in Judah during the reign of Josiah, because the Biblical books are silent concerning them. Josiah seems to have remained loyal to his Assyrian lord to the very end, even when the latter's prestige had begun to wane, and this loyalty cost him his life (2Ki 23:29). As already suggested, the advance of the Scythians furnished the occasion of the prophecy. Many questions concerning these Scythians remain still unanswered, but this much is clear, that they
were a non-Semitic race of barbarians, which swept in great hordes over Western Asia during the 7th century BC (see SCYTHIANS). The prophet looked upon the Scythians as the executioners of the divine judgment upon his sinful countrymen and upon the surrounding nations; and he saw in the coming of the mysterious host the harbinger of the day of Yahweh.
3. Moral and Religious Conditions:
The Book of Zephaniah, the early discourses of Jeremiah, and 2Ki 21:1-26 through 2Ki 23:1-37 furnish a vivid picture of the social, moral, and religious conditions in Judah at the time Zephaniah prophesied. Social injustice and moral corruption were widespread (2Ki 3:1,3,7). Luxury and extravagance might be seen on every hand; fortunes were heaped up by oppressing the poor (2Ki 1:8-9). The religious situation was equally bad. The reaction under Manasseh came near making an end of Yahweh-worship (2Ki 21:1-26). Amon followed in the footsteps of his father, and the outlook was exceedingly dark when Josiah came to the throne. Fortunately the young king came under prophetic influence from the beginning, and soon undertook a religious reform, which reached its culmination in the 18th year of his reign. When Zephaniah preached, this reform was still in the future. The Baalim were still worshipped, and the high places were flourishing (1:4); the hosts of heaven were adored upon the housetops (1:5); a half-hearted Yahweh-worship, which in reality was idolatry, was widespread (1:5); great multitudes had turned entirely from following Yahweh (1:6). When the cruel Manasseh was allowed to sit undisturbed upon the throne for more than 50 years, many grew skeptical and questioned whether Yahweh was taking any interest in the affairs of the nation; they began to say in their hearts, "Yahweh will not do good, neither will he do evil" (1:12). Conditions could hardly be otherwise, when the religious leaders had become misleaders (3:4). The few who, amid the general corruption, remained faithful would be insufficient to avert the awful judgment upon the nation, though they themselves might be "hid in the day of Yahweh's anger" (2:3).
The Book of Zephaniah falls naturally into two parts of unequal length. The first part (1:2 through 3:8) contains, almost exclusively, denunciations and threats; the second (3:9-20), a promise of salvation and glorification. The prophecy opens with the announcement of a world judgment (1:2,3), which will be particularly severe upon Judah and Jerusalem, because of idolatry (1:4-6). The ungodly nobles will suffer most, because they are the leaders in crime (1:8,9). The judgment is imminent (1:7); when it arrives there will be wailing on every hand (1:10,11). No one will escape, even the indifferent skeptics will be aroused (1:12,13). In the closing verses of chapter 1, the imminence and terribleness of the day of Yahweh are emphasized, from which there can be no escape, because Yahweh has determined to make a "terrible end of all them that dwell in the land" (1:14-18). A way of escape is offered to the meek; if they seek Yahweh, they may be "hid in the day of Yahweh" (2:1-3). Zep 2:4-15 contains threats upon 5 nations, Philistia (Zep 2:4-7), Moab and Ammon (Zep 2:8-11), Ethiopia (Zep 2:12), Assyria (Zep 2:13-15). In Zep 3:1 the prophet turns once more to Jerusalem. Leaders, both civil and religious, and people are hopelessly corrupt (Zep 3:1-4), and continue so in spite of Yahweh's many attempts to win the city back to purity (Zep 3:5-7); hence, the judgment which will involve all nations has become inevitable (Zep 3:8). A remnant of the nations and of Judah will escape and find rest and peace in Yahweh (Zep 3:9-13). The closing section (Zep 3:14-20) pictures the joy and exaltation of the redeemed daughter of Zion.
The authenticity of every verse in Zep 2:1-15 and Zep 3:1-20, and of several verses in chapter Zep 1:1-18, has been questioned by one or more scholars, but the passages rejected or questioned with greatest persistency are Zep 2:1-3,4-15 (especially Zep 2:8-11); Zep 3:9-10,14-20. The principal objection to Zep 2:1-3 is the presence in Zep 2:3 of the expressions "meek of the earth," and "seek meekness." It is claimed that "meek" and "meekness" as religious terms are post-exilic. There can be no question that the words occur more frequently in post-exilic psalms and proverbs than in preexilic writings, but it cannot be proved, or even shown to be probable, that the words might not have been used in Zephaniah's day (compare Ex 10:3; Nu 12:3; Isa 2:9 ff; Mic 6:8). A second objection is seen in the difference of tone between these verses and Zep 1:1-18. The latter, from beginning to end, speaks of the terrors of judgment; Zep 2:1-3 weakens this by offering a way of escape. But surely, judgment cannot have been the last word of the prophets; in their thought, judgment always serves a disciplinary purpose. They are accustomed to offer hope to a remnant. Hence, Zep 2:1-3 seems to form the necessary completion of chapter Zep 1:1-18.
The objections against Zep 2:4-15 as a whole are equally inconclusive. For 2:13-15, a date preceding the fall of Nineveh seems most suitable. The threat against Philistia (2:4-7) also is quite intelligible in the days of Zephaniah, for the Scythians passed right through the Philistine territory. If Ethiopia stands for Egypt, 2:12 can easily be accounted for as coming from Zephaniah, for the enemies who were going along the Mediterranean coast must inevitably reach Egypt. But if it is insisted upon that the reference is to Ethiopia proper, again no difficulty exists, for in speaking of a world judgment Zephaniah might mention Ethiopia as the representative of the far south. Against 2:8-11 the following objections are raised: (a) Moab and Ammon were far removed from the route taken by the Scythians. (b) The "reproaches" of 2:8,10 presuppose the destruction of Jerusalem (Eze 25:3,6,8). (c) The attitude of the prophet toward Judah (Zec 2:9-10) is the exact opposite of that expressed in Zep 1:1-18. (d) The qinah meter, which predominates in the rest of the section, is absent from Zep 2:8-11. (e) Zep 2:12 is the natural continuation of Zep 2:9. These five arguments are by no means conclusive: (a) The prophet is announcing a world judgment. Could this be executed by the Scythians if they confined themselves to the territory along the Mediterranean Sea? (b) Is it true that the "reproaches" of Zep 2:8,10 presuppose the destruction of Jerusalem? (c) The promises in Zep 2:7,8-10 are only to a remnant, which presupposes a judgment such as is announced in chapter Zep 1:1-18. (d) Have we a right to demand consistency in the use of a certain meter in oratory, and, if so, may not the apparent inconsistency be due to corruption of the text, or to a later expansion of an authentic oracle? (e) Zep 2:8-11 can be said to interrupt the thought only if it is assumed that the prophet meant to enumerate the nations in the order in which the Scythians naturally would reach their territory. From Philistia they would naturally pass to Egypt. But is this assumption warranted? While the objections against the entire paragraph are inconclusive, it cannot be denied that Zep 2:12 seems the natural continuation of Zep 2:9, and since Zep 2:10 and 11 differ in other respects from those preceding, suspicion of the originality of these two verses cannot be suppressed.
Zep 3:1-8 is so similar to chapter 1 that its originality cannot be seriously questioned, but Zep 3:1-8 carry with them Zep 3:9-13, which describe the purifying effects of the judgment announced in Zep 3:1-8. The present text of Zep 3:10 may be corrupt, but if properly emended there remains insufficient reason for questioning Zep 3:10 and 11. The authenticity of Zep 3:14-20 is more doubtful than that of any other section of Zephaniah. The buoyant tone of the passage forms a marked contrast to the somber, quiet strain of Zep 3:11-13; the judgments upon Judah appear to be in the past; Zep 3:18-20 seem to presuppose a scattering of the people of Judah, while the purifying judgment of Zep 3:11-13 falls upon the people in their own land; hence, there is much justice in Davidson's remark that "the historical situation presupposed is that of Isa 40:1-31 ff." On the other hand, it must be borne in mind that the passage is highly poetic, that it presents an ideal picture of the future, in the drawing of which imagination must have played some part, and it may be difficult to assert that the composition of this poem was entirely beyond the power of Zephaniah's enlightened imagination. But while the bare possibility of Zephaniah's authorship may be admitted, it is not impossible that Isa 3:14-20 contains a "new song from God," added to the utterances of Zephaniah at a period subsequent to the fall of Jerusalem.
The teaching of Zephaniah closely resembles that of the earlier prophetic books. Yahweh is the God of the universe, a God of righteousness and holiness, who expects of His worshippers a life in accord with His will. Israel are His chosen people, but on account of rebellion they must suffer severe punishment. Wholesale conversion seems out of the question, but a remnant may escape, to be exalted among the nations. He adds little, but attempts with much moral and spiritual fervor to impress upon his comtemporaries the fundamental truths of the religion of Yahweh. Only a few points deserve special mention.
1. The Day of Yahweh:
Earlier prophets had spoken of the day of Yahweh; Amos (5:18-20) had described it in language similar to that employed by Zephaniah; but the latter surpasses all his predecessors in the emphasis he places upon this terrible manifestation of Yahweh (see ESCHATOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT). His entire teaching centers around this day; and in the Book of Zephaniah we find the germs of the apocalyptic visions which become so common in later prophecies of an eschatological character. Concerning this day he says (a) that it is a day of terror (1:15), (b) it is imminent (1:14), (c) it is a judgment for sin (1:17), (d) it falls upon all creation (1:2,3; 2:4-15; 3:8), (e) it is accompanied by great convulsions in Nature (1:15), (f) a remnant of redeemed Hebrews and foreigners will escape from its terrors (Zep 2:3; 3:9-13).
The vision of the book is world-wide. The terrors of the day of Yahweh will fall upon all. In the same manner from all nations converts will be won to Yahweh (Zep 3:9-10). These will not be compelled to come to Jerusalem to worship Yahweh (Isa 2:2; Mic 4:1); they may worship Him "every one from his place" (Zep 2:11), which is a step in the direction of the utterance of Jesus in Joh 4:21.
3. Messianic Prophecy:
The Messianic King is not mentioned by Zephaniah. Though he draws a sublime picture of the glories of the Messianic age (Zep 3:14-20), there is not a word concerning the person of the Messianic King. Whatever is done is accomplished by Yahweh Himself.
Cornms. on the Minor Prophets by Ewald, Pusey, Keil, Orelli, G. A. Smith (Expositor's Bible); Driver (New Century); Eiselen; A. B. Davidson, Commentary on Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah (Cambridge Bible); A. F. Kirkpatrick, Doctrine of the Prophets; Eiselen, Prophecy and the Prophets; F. W. Farrar, "Minor Prophets," Men of the Bible; S. R. Driver, Driver, Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament; Hastings, Dictionary of the Bible (five volumes), article "Zephaniah, Book of"; Encyclopedia Biblica, article "Zephaniah."
F. C. Eiselen