Presume; Presumptuous; Presumptuously

pre-zum', pre-zump'-tu-us, pre-zump'-tu-us-li: "To presume" ("to take or go beforehand") is to speak or act without warrant or proudly. In the Old Testament the words are for the most part the translation of zudh, and zidh, "to boil up" (as water), and derivatives; hence, to act proudly, to speak unauthorizedly, etc. (De 18:20,22, of the prophet; Ex 21:14; De 1:43; 17:12-13; Ps 19:13, "presumptuous sins" (zedh, "proud"); compare Ps 86:14; 119:21, etc.; Pr 21:24, etc.). Other words are male', "to fill," "to be full" (Es 7:5, "presume"); `aphal, "to lift oneself up" (Nu 14:44); beyadh ramah, "with a high hand" (Nu 15:30, the Revised Version (British and American) "with a high hand"); in 2Pe 2:10 tolmetes, "bold," "daring," is translated "presumptuous," the Revised Version (British and American) "daring"; in 2 Macc 3:24; 5:15 we have katatolmao; thrasus, is rendered "presumption" in 2 Macc 5:18, the Revised Version (British and American) "daring deed."

W. L. Walker

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