Genealogy, 8 Part 2

Continued from GENEALOGY, 8 part 1.

I. Primeval Genealogies (1 Chronicals 1:1-54).

To show Israel's place among the nations; follows Genesis closely, omitting only the Cainites; boldly, skillfully compressed, as if the omitted facts were well known.

(1) The ten antediluvian Patriarchs, and Noah's three sons (1Ch 1:1-4).

Follows Ge 4:5, giving only the names.

(2) Japheth's descendants (1Ch 1:5-7) (Ge 10:2-4 unchanged).

(3) The Hamites (1Ch 1:8-16) (Ge 10:6-8,1-13Ge 8:1-22a unchanged).

(4) The Semites (1Ch 1:17-23) (Ge 10:22-29; only scribal changes).

(5) Abram's descent (1Ch 1:24-27) (Ge 11:10-26 abridged, giving only the Patriarchs).

(6) The sons of Abraham, Keturah, Isaac (1Ch 1:28-34).

Ge 25:1-4,13-16,25-26; 32:28. Reverses the order of Ishmael's and Keturah's descendants.

(7) Sons of Esau (1Ch 1:35-52) (Ge 36:4-10).

(8) Kings and sheikhs of Edom (1Ch 1:43,14) (Ge 36:31-43). Scribal changes.

II. Descendants of Jacob (1Ch 2:1-55 through 1Ch 9:1-44).

The tribes arranged chiefly geographically. Judah, as the royal line, is given 100 verses, Levi, as the priestly, 81 verses, Benjamin 50, the other ten 56, Dan and Zebulun neglected. His purpose practically confines him to the first three; and these were also the best preserved.

(1) Sons of Israel.

Follows substantially the order in Ge 35:1-29. Dan is placed before Rachel's sons. 17 different orders of the tribes in Bible lists.

(2) Genealogies of Judah (1Ch 2:3 through 1Ch 4:23).

(a) Descent of Jesse's sons from Judah (1Ch 2:3-17).

Largely gleaned from the historical books. The sons of Zerah (1Ch 2:6-8) are not found elsewhere. Chelubai is Caleb. Only 7 sons of Jesse are mentioned. Abishai, Joab, Asahel are always designated by their mother's name, Zeruiah.

(b) Genealogy of Bezalel (1Ch 2:18-20).

The artificer of the tabernacle, hence, greatly interests the Chronicler.

(c) Other descendants of Hezron (1Ch 2:21-24).

(d) The Jerahmeelites (1Ch 2:25-41).

Concededly a very old list of this important clan not found elsewhere. Sheshan (1Ch 2:35), who married his daughter to Jarha, an Egyptian servant, illustrates the introduction of a foreigner into the nation and tribe.

(e) The Calebites (1Ch 2:41-55).

Not elsewhere. The names are largely geographical. A subdivision of the Hezronites. Not Caleb the son of Jephunneh.

(f) David's descendants (1Ch 3:1-24).

Gives first the sons and their birthplaces, then the kings to Jeconiah and Zedekiah, then the Davidic line from Jeconiah to Zerubbabel, then the grandsons of Zerubbabel and the descendants of Shecaniah. Two other lists of David's sons (2Sa 5:14-16; 1Ch 14:4-17). Eliphelet and Nogah here are thought to have developed in transcription, with some other changes. Johanan's name (s. of Josiaih) is given among the kings, though he never reigned. Zedekiah is called son (instead of brother) of Jehoiachin, perhaps a scribal error. "Jah" names extremely numerous. Names of Zerubbabel's sons are highly symbolic: Meshullam, "Recompensed"; Hananiah, "Jah is gracious"; Shelomith, "Peace"; Hashubah, "Consideration"; Ohel, "Tent," i.e. "Dwelling of Yahweh"; Berechiah, "Jah blesses"; Hasadiah, "Jah is kind"; Jushab-hesed, "Loving-kindness returns"; characteristic of the Exile.

1Ch 3:19-24, beginning with Zerubbabel's descendants, are obscure, and a battleground of criticism on account of their bearing on the date of Chronicles. There are three possible interpretations: (1) Following the Hebrew, Zerubbabel's descendants stop with Pelatiah and Jeshaiah, his grandsons. Then follow three unclassified sets of "sons." No connection is shown between Jeshaiah and these. Then follows Shecaniah's line with four generations. There are several other instances of unrelated names thus being thrown in. This gives two generations after Zerubbabel. (2) Still following the Hebrew, assume that Shecaniah after Obadiah is in Zerubbabel's line. This gives six generations after Zerubbabel. (3) Following Septuagint, Syriac, Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) (but the two latter are of very small critical weight), read in verse 21, "Rephaiah his son, Arnan his son," etc.--a very possible change: eleven generations after Zerubbabel. According to (3), Ch was written at least 253 years (allowing 23 years to a generation; more probable than 30 or 40) after Zerubbabel (515), hence, after 262 BC; (2) makes it after 373; (1) makes it 459, during Ezra's life. The book's last recorded event is Cyrus' decree (538), which indicates the earliest date. The New Testament casts no light here, none of these names appearing in the genealogies in Matthew or Luke. If Septuagint is correct, Keil suggests that it is a later insertion, a critical device too frequently used to nullify inconvenient facts. The passage itself justifies the statement that "there is no shadow of proof that the families enumerated in 1Ch 3:21, latter part, were descendants of Hananiah the son of Zerubbabel." Against this, and the other indications, the admittedly faulty Septuagint furnishes an insufficient basis for so far-reaching a conclusion.

(g) Fragmentary genealogies of families of Judah (1Ch 4:1-23).

Contains (1) "sons" of Judah, four or five successive generations; (2) sons of Shobal and Hur; (3) sons of Chelub; (4) sons of Caleb, son of Jephunneh; (5) sons of Jehaleel; (6) sons of Ezra (of course, not the priest-scribe of the return); (7) sons of "Bethiah the daughter of Pharaoh whom Mered took"; (8) sons of Shimon; (9) sons of Ishi; (10) sons of Shelah. It is hard to trace the law of association here; which fact has its bearing on the discussion under (f) above. Chelub may be another Caleb. 1 Ch 4:9-11 give an interesting name-study, where Jabez by prayer transforms into prosperity the omen of his sorrowful name: "Because I bare him with sorrow," a characteristic note. 1Ch 4:21-23 speak of the linenworkers and potters. Similar, even identical, names have been found on pot-handles-in Southern Palestine. #(3) Genealogy of Simeon (4:24-43).

(a) Simeon's sons. Genealogy of Shimei. After Ge 46:10; Ex 6:15; Nu 26:12-14.

(b) Dwelling-places of Simeon. After Jos 19:2-8.

(c) Princes and conquests (1Ch 4:34-43).

Source unknown, but considered old. Gray, however, thinks the names of late formation. Meshobab, Jamlech, Joshah, Amaziah, Joel, Jehu, Josibiah, Seraiah, Asiel, Elioenai, Jaakobah, Jeshohaiah, Asaiah, Adiel, Jesimiel, Benaiah, Ziza, Shiphi, Allon, Jedaiah, Shimri, Shemaiah, Ishi, Pelatiah, Neariah, Rephaiah, Uzziel; many undoubtedly old ones; 11 in yah, 5 in 'el. Eliothal sounds post-exilic. The section mentions several exploits of Simeon.

(4) East-Jordanic tribes (1Ch 5:1-24).

As in Simeon above, the usual order, deviated from in instances, is (1) Introductory: Sons and immediate descendants; (2) Territory; (3) Princes or Chiefs; (4) Incidents.

(a) Reuben (1Ch 5:1-10).

Partly follows Gen, Nu; but only as to first generation. Very fragmentary and connections obscure.

(b) Gad (1Ch 5:11-17).

First generation omitted. Chronicler draws from genealogies "in the days of" Jotham and Jeroboam.

(c) Half-Manasseh (1Ch 5:23,14).

The whole tribe is treated of (1Ch 7:14 ff). Here only the seats and heads of houses.

(5) Levi (1Ch 6:1-81).

Illustrates more fully the Chronicler's attitude and methods.

(a) High priests from Levi to Jehozadak (the Exile) (1Ch 6:1-15).

(i) Levi's sons: Gershon, Kohath, Merari (Ge 46:11; Ex 6:16).

(ii) Kohath's sons: Amram, Izhar, Hebron, Uzziel (Ex 6:18).

(iii) Amram's "sons": Aaron, Moses, Miriam (Ex 6:20,23 (except Miriam); Nu 26:59 f).

(iv) High priests from Eleazar. Also (partly) Ezra (7:1-5):

1. Eleazar

2. Phinehas

3. Abishua

4. Bukki

5. Uzzi

6. Zerahiah

7. Meraioth

8. Amariah

9. Ahitub

10. Zadok

11. Ahimaaz

12. Azariah

13. Johnnan

14. Azariah

15. Amariah

16. Ahitub

17. Zadok

18. Shallum

19. Hilkiah

20. Azariah

21. Seraiah

22. Jehozadak

Noteworthy omissions: Eli's house, Eli, Phinehas, Ahitub, Ahimelech, Abiathar, because set aside for Zadok's in Solomon's time; Bukki to Zadok being their contemporaries; but the list also omits Amariah in the reign of Jehoshaphat (perhaps), Jehoiada, Joash's "power behind the throne," Urijah in Ahaz' day, Azariah in Hezekiah's. It has been thought that this was done in the interests of a chronological scheme of the Chronicler, making 23 generations of 40 years from the Exodus to the Captivity, or 920 years. The Hebrew generation, however, was as likely to be 30 as 40 years, and as a matter of fact was nearer 20. The apparent number of generations from Aaron to the Captivity, adding the data from the historical books, is 29, making a generation about 24 years. The reasons for the omission here, as for many others, are not apparent. Outside of Chronicles and Ezra we know nothing of Abishua, Bukki, Uzzi, Zerahiah, Meraioth, the first Amaziah, Johanan, Amariah, Ahitub, Zadok 2, Shallum, Azariah 3. The list touches historical notices in Aaron, Eleazar, Phinehas, Zadok, Ahimaaz, Azariah 2, contemporary of Solomon, perhaps Amariah, contemporary of Jehoshaphat, Azariah, contemporary of Uzziah, Hilkiah, contemporary of Joshua, Seraiah slain by the Chaldeans, and Jehozadak. The recurrence of similar names in close succession is characteristically Jewish (but compare names of popes and kings). It is seen in the list beginning with Jehozadak: Joshua, Joiakim, Eliashib, Joiada, Jonathan, Jaddua, Onias, Simon, Eleazar, Manasseh, Onias, Simon, Onias, Joshua. Also about Christ's time: Eleazar, Jesus, Annas, Ismael, Eleazar, Simon, Joseph, Jonathan, Theophilus, Simon, although these latter do not succeed in a genealogical line.

(b) The three Levitical clans (1Ch 6:16-19). After Ex 6:17-19; Nu 3:17-20.

(c) Lineal descendants of Gershom: seven, 1Ch 6:20-21; thirteen, 1Ch 6:39-43. See also 1Ch 23:7.

The two lists (1Ch 6:20-21 and 1Ch 6:39-43) are clearly the same:

Gershom Gershom

Libni Jahath

Zimmah Zimmah

Joah Ethan

Iddo Adaiah

Zerah Zerah

Jeatherai Ethni







Jahath, Zimmah, Zerah are in both. By slight changes Joah, yow'ah, is Ethan, 'ethan; Iddo, `idow, is `idaiah, Adaiah; Jeatherai, y¦'thriy, is Ethni, 'ethniy. Shimei may have dropped from one and Libni from the other. Jahath and Shimei have been transposed. In 1 Ch 23:7 Libni is Ladan.

(d) Pedigrees of Samuel (1Ch 6:27-28; 33-35). See also 1Sa 1:1; 8:2.

We have three pedigrees of Samuel, all suffering in transcription:

(1) 1Ch 6:22-24,28 (2) 1Ch 6:33-38 (3) 1Sa 1:1; 8:2

Kohath Kohath

Amminadab Izhar

Korah Korah

Assir, Elkanah,

Ebiasaph Ebiasaph

Assir Assir

Tahath Tahath

Uriel Zephaniah

Uzziah Azariah

Shaul Joel

Elkanah Elkanah

Amasai Amasai

Ahimoth Mahath

Elkanah Elkanah

Zophai Zuph Zuph

Nahath Thoah Thohu

Eliab Eliel Elihu

Jeroham Jeroham Jeroham

Elkanah Elkanah Elkanah

Samuel Samuel Samuel

Joel (Vashni) and Joel Joel



The text is obscure. Septuagint reads (1Ch 6:26), "Elkanah his (Ahimoth's) son, Zophai his son." It has Izhar in (1) for Amminadab, as has Hebrew in Ex 6:18,21. Uriel for Zephaniah is unexplainable. Uzziah and Azariah are exchangeable. The other variations are transcriptional. Joel has dropped out of the first list, and the following words, now in 1Sa 8:2, and the Syriac here: "and the second," v-sh-n, have been read "Vashni." 1Sa 1:1 calls Zuph an Ephraimite. The Chronicler's claiming him (and Samuel) seems to some another instance of Levitical bias and acquisitiveness. The genealogy is also found "clearly artificial," Zuph being a territory, and Toah, Tohu, Nahath, a family. But "Ephraimite" is either merely local, the family having been assigned residence there (Jos 21:5; 1Ch 6:66), or (Hengstenberg, Ewald) because, being thus assigned, it has been incorporated into the tribe. Hannah's vow to devote him to Yahweh is said (Curtis, Moore, ICC in the place cited.) to show that he was no Levite, in which case no vow was necessary. But Elkanah's Ephraimite citizenship may have obscured in Hannah's mind the Levitical descent. In the disorganized times of the Judges an Ephraimite woman may well have been ignorant of, or indifferent to, the Levitical regulation, She, or the author of 1Sa 1:1, must also have forgotten that every male that openeth the womb from any tribe is equally God's property A mother's vow to devote her firstborn son to Yahweh, beyond recall or redemption, and to seal his consecration by the significant symbol of the unshaved head, is not hard to imagine in either a Levite or an Ephramite, and equally "unnecessary" in either case. Heman, ending the pedigree (2), was David's contemporary.

(e) Pedigree of Asaiah the Merarite (1Ch 6:29-30).

Merari: Mahli: Libni; Shimei: Uzzah: Shimea: Haggiah: Asaiah. Hard to adjust or place. Libni and Shimei are elsewhere Gershonites, but the same name is frequently found in different tribes or clans. Information below Mahli is entirely wanting.

(f) Descent of David's three singers, Heman, Asaph, Ethan (1Ch 6:33-47).

(i) Heman has been given under (d) ; 20 links.

(ii) Asaph: Getshorn: Jahath: Shimei: Zimmah: Ethan: Adaiah: Zerah: Ethni (Jeatherai): Malchijah: Baaseiah: Michael: Shimea: Berechiah: Asaph; 15 links.

(iii) Ethan: Merari: Mushi: Mahli: Shemet: Bani: Amzi: Hilkiah: Amaziah: Hashabiah: Malluch: Abdi: Kishi: Ethan; 12 links.

Hardly anywhere is the Chronicler's good faith more questioned than in these lists. Finding in his day the three guilds of singers claiming descent from David's three, and through these from Levi, he fits them out with pedigrees, borrowing names from 1Ch 6:16-20, and filling out with his favorite names, or those of his own invention, or from current lists. To make Asaph contemporary with David, he adds Malchijah, Maaseiah, Michael, Shimei, Berechiah. He helps out Ethan with Bani, Amzi, Hilkiah, Amaziah, Hashabiah, Malluch, Abdi, Kishi. The names added are very frequent in Chronicles and Ezra, not frequent in older writings. Aside from the general objection to this thoroughgoing discredit of Chronicles, and theory of religious development in Israel on which it is based, it may be said: (1) The Chronicler's failure to give his three families nearly the same number of links is suspicious, but if he took an old list, as it came to him, it is natural. (2) The fact that these added names occur many more times in Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah indicates simply that Levitical names occur frequently in a writer and among a people whose interests are Levitical. No one would look among the Roundheads for either classical or aristocratic names. (3) In no tribe would such names be more likely to recur, naturally or purposely, than in the Levitical. (4) The Chronicler has inserted among his new names 6 in yah and only 1 in 'el, and that far down the list. (5) Of the "added" names Malchijah occurs in Jer 21:1; Masseiah, in Jer 29:21,25; 35:4, in every case priestly or Levitical. Michael occurs in Nu 13:13. Berechiah is the name of the prophet Zechariah's father. Hilkiah is the name of Joshua's high priest. Amaziah reigned 800 BC. Bani is mentioned in 2Sa 23:36 (though this is thought to be copied from Chronicles). Shimea is concededly early. Of the 13 "added names" 8 are found elsewhere. Of the others, Amzi, Abdi, Kishi (Kish, Kushaiah) have an early look. Malluch might be late. If Hashabiah is late the author has scattered it well through the history, 1 several generations before David, 3 in David's time, 1 in Josiah's, 1 in Ezra's, 3 in Nehemiah's, in every case a Levite. (7) While these "added" names occur more times in Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, than elsewhere, and 5 of the 13 occur nowhere else, it is also true that more than 500 other names also occur only in these three books, and that the total names in these, to say nothing of the "P" portions elsewhere, outnumber the names in the other books about three to one. Other things being equal, three mentions of any common name ought to be found in these books to one in the others. Of all names applied to more than four persons the usual proportion in these books by count is four, to one elsewhere.

(g) Pedigree of Ahimaaz (1Ch 6:50-53). Parallel with 1Ch 6:4-8.

(h) Dwelling-places of Levi.

(6) The six remaining tribes.

(a) Issachar (1Ch 7:1-5).

1Ch 7:1 derived from Ge 46:13; Nu 26:23,14. The rest peculiar to Chronicles. Closes with a record of fighting men, instead of the usual statement of dwelling-places.

(b) Benjamin (1Ch 7:6-13).

A very difficult section. It is considered a Zebulunite genealogy which has been Benjaminized, because (1) there is a Benjamite list elsewhere; (2) Benjamin is out of place here, while in 13 out of 17 tribal lists Zebulun comes at this point, and in this list has no other place; (3) the numbers of Benjamin's sons differ from other Benjamite genealogies; (4) the names of Bela's and Becher's sons are different here; (5) many names are not Benjamite; (6) Tarshish, in this list, is a sea-coast name appropriate to Zebulun, but not Benjamin. But (1) it is called Benjamite; (2) doublets are not unknown in Chronicles; (3) Dan is also neglected; (4) many Benjamite names are found; (5) both the Zebulunite material and the Benjamite material elsewhere is too scanty for safe conclusions.

(c) Dan, 1Ch 7:12, from Ge 46:23.

Aher (" another") is a copyist's error or substitute for Dan.

(d) Naphtali, 1Ch 7:13, from Ge 46:24 (transcriptional changes).

(e) Manasseh, East and West (1Ch 7:14-19).

The text of 1Ch 7:14-15 very corrupt. No other notice is found of the sons in 1Ch 7:16-17: Peresh, Sheresh, Ulam, Rakere, Bedan.

(f) Ephraim to Joshua (1Ch 7:20-29).

Contains an interesting personal note in the mourning of Ephraim over his sons Ezer and Elead, and the subsequent birth of Beriah. Interpreted to mean that the clans Ezer and Elead met with disaster, on which the clan Beriah became prominent.

(g) The seats of Joseph's sons (1Ch 7:28-29).

Hard to say why this has been placed here.

(h) Asher (1Ch 7:30-40).

The earliest names derived from Ge 46:17. Gray considers the others ancient.

(i) Benjamin (1Ch 8:1-40).

(i) Sons of Benjamin. After Ge 46:21, with variations. See (6) (b).

(ii) Descendants of Ehud (1Ch 8:6-28). Text very corrupt, obscure.

(iii) The house of Saul (1Ch 8:29-38); repeated (1Ch 9:35-44).

In this passage two exceptions to the usual treatment of Baal compounds. Ishbaal and Meribbaal here are Ishbosheth and Mephibosheth in S.

(7) The inhabitants of Jerusalem (1Ch 9:1-34).

With variations in Ne 11:1-13. This passage has been thought an interpolation, but it is the Chronicler's custom to give dwelling-places. Perhaps this and Neh are two independent abridgments of the same document. This probably describes post-exilic conditions. 1Ch 9:1 and 2 here, and Ne 11:1-36 seem conclusive on this point. Four classes of returning exiles:

(a) The children of Judah, Benjamin, Ephraim, Manasseh.

Constituting "the laity," "Israel."

(b) The priests.

Agreeing with Nehemiah, but abridged.

(c) The Levites. Paralleling Nehemiah, but not exactly.

(d) Nethinim or porters. Fuller than Nehemiah, and different.

(8) The house of Saul (1Ch 9:35-44, repeating 1Ch 9:29-38).

(22) David's Knights (1Ch 11:10-47).

Discussed under (19). Adds to the list, Adina, son of Shiza, Reubenite; Hanan, son of Maacah, Joshaphat the Mithnite, Uzziah the Ashterathite, Shama and Jeiel the sons of Hotham the Aroerite, Jediael the son of Shimri, and Joah his brother, the Tizite, Eliel the Mahavite, and Jeribai and Joshaviah, the sons of Elnaam, and Ithmah the Moabite, Eliel, and Obed, and Jaasieh the Mezobaite.

(23) David's Recruits at Ziklag (1Ch 12:1-40 through 1Ch 22:1-19).

Found only here. Contains 23 names from Benjamin (some may be Judahite); 11 from Gad; 8 from Manasseh; nothing to show that the names are not old.

(24) David's Musicians and Porters at the Bringing of the Ark (1Ch 15:16-24).

Also 1 Ch 16:5,6,37-43. Each division of the Levites represented by a chief musician.

(25) David's Organization of the Kingdom (1Ch 23:1-32 through 1Ch 27:1-34).

I. The Levites (1 Chronicals 23).

(1) The family of Gershon (1Ch 23:7-11); 9 houses.

(2) The family of Kohath (1Ch 23:12-20); 11 houses.

(3) The family of Merari (1Ch 23:21-23); 4 houses.

II. The Priests (1 Chronicals 24).

24 divisions; 16 divided among descendants of Eleazar, headed by Zadok; 8 among those of Ithamar, headed by Ahimelech (perhaps an error for Abiathar); but perhaps Ahimelech's. Abiathar, son of Ahimelech, was acting for his father.

(1) Eleazar's courses: Jehoiarib, Harim, Malchijah, Hakkoz, Joshua, Eliashib, Huppah, Bilgah, Hezer, Aphses, Pethahiah, Jehezekel, Jachin, Gamul, Delaiah, Maaziah.

(2) Ithamar: Jedaiah, Seorim, Mijamin, Abijah, Shecaniah, Jachim, Joshebeab, Immer.

Josephus gives the same names of courses (Ant., VII, xiv, 7; Vita, 1). Several are mentioned in Apocrypha, Talmud, and the New Testament. Jehoiarib, Jedaiah, Harim, Malchijah, Mijarain, Abijah, Shecaniah, Bilgah, Maaziah, are found in one or both of Nehemiah's lists.

(3) Supplementary list of Levites (1Ch 20:1-8 through 31).

Repeats the Levitical families in 1Ch 23:6-23, omitting the Gershonites, adding to the Kohathites and Merarites.

III. The Singers (1 Chronicals 25).

(1) Their families, classified under the three great groups, descendants of Asaph, Jeduthun (Ethan), Heman.

A curious problem is suggested by the fact that the names in verse 4, beginning with Hanani, with a few very slight changes, read: "Hanan (`Have mercy') -iah (`O Yahweh'); Hanani (~`Have mercy'); Eli-athah ('Thou art my God'); Giddalti (`I have magnified') (and) Romamti (`exalted') (thy) Ezer (`help'); Josh-bekashah (`In the seat of hardness'); Mallothi (`I spake of it'); Hothir (`Gave still'); Mahazioth (`Visions')." How, or why, this came among these names, cannot be said.

(2) The 24 courses of 12 singers each, of which courses numbers 1, 3, 5, 7 fell to Asaph; numbers 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 14 fell to Jeduthun; numbers 6, 9, 11, 13, 15-24 fell to Heman.

IV. Gatekeepers and Other Officers (1Ch 26:1-32).

(1) Genealogies and stations of the gatekeepers (1Ch 26:1-19).

(2) Those in charge of the temple treasury (1Ch 26:20-28).

(3) Those in charge of the "outward business."

Subordinate magistrates, tax-collectors, etc.

V. The Army, and David's Officers (1Ch 27:1-34).

(1) The army (1Ch 27:1-15).

12 officers, each commanding 24,000 men, and in charge for one month; chosen from David's knights.

(2) The tribal princes (1Ch 27:16-24).

After the fashion of Nu 12:1-16 through 15. Gad and Asher are omitted. The 12 are made up by including the Levites and the Aaronites.

(3) The king's twelve stewards (1Ch 27:25-31).

(4) The king's court officers (1Ch 27:32-34).

Counselor and scribe: Jonathan, the king's uncle, otherwise unknown; tutor: Jehiel; counselor: Ahithophel; "the king's friend" (closest confidant?): Hushai. Possibly two priests are next included: Jehoiada the son of Benaiah, and Abiathar, high priest of the Ithamar branch. But perhaps it should read, "Benaiah, the son of Jehoiada." If two priests are intended, it seems strange that Zadok is not one. The list ends with the commander-in-chief, Joab.

This elaborate organization in every part and branch of the kingdom is looked upon as the Chronicler's glowing Utopian dream of what must have been, underrating the organizing power of the great soldier and statesman.

(26) Ezr 2:1-63.--The Exiles Who Returned with Zerubbabel.

Paralleled in Ne 7:6-73. 9 "Jah," 4 "El" names in 107.

(1) The Leaders (Ezr 2:2).

(2) Numbers, according to Families (Ezr 2:3-19).

18 of Ezra's numbers differ from Nehemiah's.

(3) Numbers according to Localities (Ezr 2:20-35).

10 towns probably Judahite, 7 Benjamite.

(4) The Priests (Ezr 2:39,42).

Only 4 families, representing 3 Davidic courses.

(5) The Levites (Ezr 2:43,14).

Among the singers, only Asaphites.

(6) The Porters (Ezr 2:45).

3 old names, 3 new ones.

(7) The "Nethinim" (Temple-Slaves) (Ezr 2:46-56).

(8) The Children of Solomon's Servants (Slaves) (Ezr 2:57-59).

(9) Those Who Could Not Prove Their Descent.

(a) General population.

Three families, children of Delaiah, Tobiah, Nekoda.

(b) Priestly families.

Hobaiah, Hakkoz, Barzillai. Hakkoz, the seventh of the Davidic courses, perhaps succeeded later in establishing their right (Ne 3:21).

(27) Ezr 6:1-5.--Ezra's Genealogy.

An ascending genealogy: Ezra, son of Seraiah, son of Azariah, son of Hilkiah, son of Shallum, son of Zadok, son of Ahitub, son of Amaraiah, son of Azariah, son of Meraioth, son of Zerahiah, son of Uzzi, son of Bukki, son of Abishua, son of Phinehas, son of Eleazar, son of Aaron; 16 links. Follows 1 Ch 6:7-10 down to Zadok, then omits 7 to Shallum, besides the 7 omitted in Chronicles.

(28) Ezr 8:1-20.--Numbers and Leaders of Those Who Returned with Zerubbabel.

Numbers much smaller than in Zerubbabel's list (Ezr 2:1-14). Perhaps 3 new families, Shecaniah, Shelomith, Joah; 7 more leaders. A much smaller proportion of Levites; among them a "man of discretion," perhaps a name, "Ishsecel," of the sons of Mahli, therefore a Merarite, with other Merarites, 39 in all.

(29) Ezr 10:18-44.--Jews Who Had Married Foreign Women.

(1) The Priests (Ezr 10:18-22).

Seventeen in all; members of the high priest's family, and of the Davidic courses of Immer and Harim, besides the family of Pashhur.

(2) The Levites (Ezr 10:23); 6 in All.

(3) Singers and Porters (Ezr 10:24); 4 in All.

(4) "Israel," "the Laity" (Ezr 10:25-43).

Sixteen families represented; 86 persons. Out of a total of 163 names, 39 yah compounds, 19 'el compounds, 8 prefixed.

(30) Ne 3:1-12.--The Leaders in the Repair of the Wall.

Thirty-eight leaders; in 30 instances the father's name also given. As far as mentioned, all from Judah and Jerusalem.

(31) Ne 7:7-63.--Those Who Returned with Zerubbabel.

Follows Ezr 2:1-63, with transcriptional variations in names and numbers.

(32) Ne 8:4-7.--Levites and Others Who Assisted Ezra in Proclaiming the Law.

(33) Ne 10:1-27.--The Sealers of the Covenant.

Twenty-two priests, 17 Levites, 20 heads of families already mentioned, 24 individuals.

(34) Ne 11:3-36.--Chief Dwellers in Jerusalem and Vicinity.

Parallels in 1Ch 9:9-22. Some omissions and variations; 5 priestly courses given, Joiarib, course number 1; Jedaiah, number 2; Jachin, number 23; Malchijah, number 5; Immer, number 6. 24 "Jah," 6 "El" names out of 82.

(35) Ne 12:1-8.--Priests and Levites Who Went Up with Zerubbabel.

Compare with priests' lists in Ne 10:2-8 (33), and with priests under Joiakim (Ne 12:12-21 (36)). They are names of families. See Ne 12:12.

(36) Ne 12:10-11.--High Priests from Jeshua to Jaddua.

(1) Jeshua, 538 to 520 BC.

(2) Joiakim.

(3) Eliashib, 446 till after 433.

(4) Joiada, about 420.

(5) Jonathan, Johanan, 405 to 362.

(6) Jaddua, to 323.

This list bears upon the date of Ezra-Nehemiah. Jaddua was high priest when Alexander visited Jerusalem, 335 BC. If the Darius of verse 22 is Darius Nothus (425 to 405 BC), and Jaddua, a young boy, is mentioned as the heir to the high-priesthood, this passage was written before 400. If Jaddua's actual high-priesthood is meant, and Darius Codomannus (336 to 330 BC) is the Darius here, the date may be about 330. The enumeration of families here is assigned to the time of Joiakim, before 405, and the latest recorded events to the time of the high priest before Jaddua (Ne 12:23; 13:28), hence, before 362. The hypothesis of an addition by some scribe after 350 is possible, but not necessary.

(37) Ne 12:12-21.--Heads of Priestly Families.

(38) Ne 12:22-26.--Levites and Porters under High Priest Johanan.

(39) Ne 12:31-42.--Princes and Priests at Dedication of the Wall.

(40) Mt 1:1-17.--The Genealogy of Jesus Christ.

(See separate article).

(41) Lu 3:23-38.--The Genealogy of Jesus.

(See separate article).


Commentaries in the place cited., especially on Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Chronicles, Ezra-Nehemiah, especially C. F. Keil, Bible Comm., 1872; E. Bertheau, in Kurzgef. exeget. Handb. zum Altes Testament, 1873; Bible ("Speaker's") Commentary (Browne, Gen; Clark, Ex; Espin, Nu; Rawlinson, Chronicles, etc.); W. B. Barnes, Cambridge Bible, Chronicles; R. Kittel, Die Bucher der Chronicles; Driver, Westminster Comm., Gen; ICC (Gray, Nu; Moore, Jgs; Curtis, Chronicles, etc.); Pulpit Comm.; W. R. Harvey-Jellie, Ch in Century Bible; S. Oettli, Kgf. Kom., 1889; O. Zoeckler, Lange's Comm., etc.

Encyclopedia arts., especially HDB, E. L. Curtis, "Genealogies"; SBD, A. C. Hervey, "Genealogies"; EB, S. A. Cook, "Genealogies"; EB, 11th edition, S. A. Cook, "Genealogies"; other encyclopedia arts., under specific books, tribes, names, genealogies.

General works: Gray, Studies in Hebrew Proper Names; Hommel, The Ancient Hebrew Tradition; A.C. Hervey, The Genealogies of our Lord; Sprenger, Das Leben u. d. Lehre d. Mohammad; W.R. Smith, Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia; J. Wellhausen, De Gentibus et Familiis Judaeis; J. Wellhausen, Prolegomena, 1883 (ET), 177-277; McLennan, Studies in Ancient History.

Magazine articles: H.W. Hogg, "Genealogy of Benjamin," JQR, XI, 1899, 96-133, 329-44; M. Berlin, "Notes on Genealogies of Levi, 1Ch 23:1-32-1Ch 26:1-32," Jewish Quarterly Review, XII, 1900, 291-98; M. Berlin, "Gershonite and Merarite Genealogies," JQR, XII, 1901, 291 ff; H. W. Hogg, "Ephraimite Genealogy," JQR, XIII, 1900-1901, 147-54; J. Marquart, "Genealogies of Benjamin," JQR, XIV, 1902, 343-51; J. W. Rothstein, Die Genealogie das Konigs Jojachin und seiner Nachkommen in geschichtlicher Beleuchtung, Berlin: Reuther u. Reichold, 1902; R.S. Macalister, "The Royal Potters, 1Ch 4:23," The Expositor Times, XVI, 1905, 379 ff; R. S. Macalister, "The Craftsmen Guild of the Tribe of Judah," PEFS, 1905, 243-53, 328-42; C. C. Torrey, "The Greek versions of Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah," Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, XXV. 1903, 139 ff, and many others.

Philip Wendell Crannell

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