mar'-shal: Not found in the King James Version, but in the Revised Version (British and American) the word represents two Hebrew words: (1) copher (Jg 5:14), translated "they that handle the marshal's staff." A difficulty arises because the usual meaning of copher is "scribe" or "writer" (so the King James Version). The revisers follow Septuagint and Greek authority which favor "marshal" as against "scribe." The office of marshal was to help the general to maintain discipline (compare 1 Macc 5:42). (2) Tiphcar (Jer 51:27), a loan-word whose meaning is clear. Lenormant thinks it akin to a Babylonian-Assyrian word meaning "tablet-writer" (compare Delitzsch). Accordingly, the Revised Version margin renders Na 3:17 "thy scribes," though the Syriac has "thy warriors," as does the Targum in Jeremiah. We must await further light on both words.

See a list of verses on MASHAL in the Bible.

George B. Eager

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