Heavy; Heaviness

hev'-i, hev'-i-nes (kabhedh, de'aghah; lupe):

1. Literal:

Heavy (heave, to lift) is used literally with respect to material things, as the translation of kobhedh, "heaviness" (Pr 27:3, "a stone is heavy"); of kabhedh, "to be weighty" (1Sa 4:18; 2Sa 14:26; La 3:7); of `amac, "to load" (Isa 46:1 the King James Version; compare Mt 26:43; Mr 14:40; Lu 9:32, "Their eyes were heavy"); bareomai, "to be weighed down."

2. Figuratively:

It is used (1) for what is hard to bear, oppressive, kabhedh (Ex 18:18; Nu 11:14; 1Sa 5:6,11; Ps 38:4; Isa 24:20); motah, a "yoke" (Isa 58:6, the Revised Version (British and American) "bands of the yoke"); qasheh, "sharp," "hard" (1Ki 14:6, "heavy tidings"); barus, "heavy" (Mt 23:4); (2) for sad, sorrowful (weighed down), mar, "bitter" (Pr 31:6, the Revised Version (British and American) "bitter"); ra`, "evil" (Pr 25:20); ademoneo, literally, "to be sated," "wearied," then, "to be very heavy," "dejected" (Mt 26:37, of our Lord in Gethsemane, "(he) began to be sorrowful and very heavy," the Revised Version (British and American) "sore troubled"); "ademonein denotes a kind of stupefaction and bewilderment, the intellectual powers reeling and staggering under the pressure of the ideas presented to them" (Mason, The Conditions of our Lord's Life on Earth); compare Mr 14:33; (3) morose, sulky, as well as sad, car, "sullen," "sour," "angry" (1Ki 20:43; 21:4, "heavy and displeased"); (4) dull, kabhedh (Isa 6:10, "make their ears heavy"; Isa 59:1, "neither (is) his ear heavy"); (5) "tired" seems to be the meaning in Ex 17:12, "Moses' hands were heavy" (kabhedh); compare Mt 26:43 and parallels above.

Heavily is the translation of kebhedhuth, "heaviness" (Ex 14:25), meaning "with difficulty"; of qadhar, "to be black," "to be a mourner" (Ps 35:14 the King James Version, the Revised Version (British and American) "I bowed down mourning"); of kabhedh (Isa 47:6).

Heaviness has always the sense of anxiety, sorrow, grief, etc.; de'aghah, "fear," "dread," "anxious care" (Pr 12:25, "Heaviness in the heart of a man maketh it stoop," the Revised Version margin "or care"); kehah, "to be feeble," "weak" (Isa 61:3, "the spirit of heaviness"); panim, "face," "aspect" (Job 9:27 the King James Version, "I will leave off my heaviness," the Revised Version (British and American) "(sad) countenance"; compare 2 Esdras 5:16; The Wisdom of Solomon 17:4; Ecclesiasticus 25:23); ta'aniyah, from 'anah, "to groan," "to sigh" (Isa 29:2, the Revised Version (British and American) "mourning and lamentation"); tughah, "sadness," "sorrow" (Ps 119:28; Pr 10:1; 14:13); ta`anith, "affliction of one's self," "fasting" (Ezr 9:5, the Revised Version (British and American) "humiliation," margin "fasting"); katepheia, "dejection," "sorrow" (literally, "of the eyes") (Jas 4:9, "your joy (turned) to heaviness"); lupe, "grief" (Ro 9:2, the Revised Version (British and American) "great sorrow"; 2Co 2:1, the Revised Version (British and American) "sorrow"); lupeomai (1Pe 1:6, the Revised Version (British and American) "put to grief"); for nush, "to be sick," "feeble" (Ps 69:20, the Revised Version margin "sore sick"), and ademoneo (Php 2:26 the Revised Version (British and American) "sore troubled"), the King James Version has "full of heaviness." "Heaviness," in the sense of sorrow, sadness, occurs in 2 Esdras 10:7,8,24; Tobit 2:5; lupe (Ecclesiasticus 22:4, the Revised Version (British and American) "grief"; 30:21, "Give not thy soul to heaviness," the Revised Version (British and American) "sorrow"; 1 Macc 6:4); lupeo (Ecclesiasticus 30:9, the Revised Version (British and American) "will grieve thee"; penthos (1 Macc 3:51, etc.).

The Revised Version has "heavier work" for "more work" (Ex 5:9); "heavy upon men" for "common among men" (Ec 6:1); for "were heavy loaden" (Isa 46:1), "are made a load"; for "the burden thereof is heavy" (Isa 30:27), "in thick rising smoke."

W. L. Walker

 
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