be-yond': Found in the Hebrew only in its application to space and time, and for these ideas three words are employed: hale'ah (Ge 35:21) = "to the distance"; `abhar = "to go beyond" "to cross" derivative `ebher (Chald. `abhar) = "across," "beyond" (De 30:13; Jos 18:7; Jg 3:26; 1Sa 20:36; 2Ch 20:2; Ezr 4:17,20; Jer 25:22); and `al (Le 15:25) = "beyond the time." In the New Testament peran, is used to express "beyond" in the spatial sense (Mt 4:15), while other words and phrases are employed for adverbial ideas of degree: huperperissos (Mr 7:37); huper (2Co 8:3; 10:16); kathuperbolen (Ga 1:13). In the King James Version be`eher, is occasionally translated "beyond," and when this word is joined to ha-yarden, "Jordan," as it usually is, it becomes critically important. In the American Standard Revised Version, be`ebher ha-yarden is translated "beyond the Jordan," in Ge 50:10,21; De 3:20,25; Jos 9:10; Jg 5:17; "on this side Jordan" in De 1:1,5; Jos 1:14,18; "on the othe r side Jordan" in De 11:30; Jos 12:1; 22:4; 24:2,8 (compare the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American), Jos 24:14,25; see RIVER, THE), Jg 10:8; 1Sa 31:7; and "on the side of Jordan" in Jos 5:1. the American Standard Revised Version gives "beyond the Jordan" throughout. me`ebher, is used with ha-yarden in Nu 34:15; 35:14; Jos 13:32; Jg 7:25; and `ebher, alone in De 4:49 (the King James Version "on this side"); Jos 13:27 (the King James Version "on the other side"). It is clear that the phrase may be translate d "across Jordan"; that it is used of either side of the Jordan (De 3:8 speaks of the eastern, De 3:20,25 of the western); that "beyond Jordan" may be used of the side of the Jordan on which the writer stands (Jos 5:1; 9:1; 12:7); but from the fact that De 1:1,5; 4:41,46-47,49, where statements are made about Moses, the reference is to the country East of the Jordan, while in De 3:20,25; 11:30, where Moses is represented as speaking, the West is indicated, critics have concluded that the author (at least of Deuteronomy) must have lived after Moses, being careful to distinguish between himself and the prophet.
Frank E. Hirsch